19th Century Humanities



Graph 1: Life Expectancy (years) VS. Income Per Person (GDP/capita, inflation-adjusted $)

                      In the early 19th century, people were mostly engaged in the civil wars. The incident with Abraham Lincoln doused American in a

 pool of perplexity, the decision of whether to abolish slave or not, and the fighting between the Confederate and the Union Armies. The 1880s

 were the first decade with the exception of Civil Wars, when urban population increased more than rural areas. From 1880 to 1920, population

 growth concentrated in cities, number of foreign immigration also majorly increased. In 1880, workers in agriculture outnumbered the industrial

 workers, but by 1920, the numbers were equal. Employment rates increased in the manufacturing sector from 1880s to 1920, which is the 

reason why both life expectancy and income gradually rose.

Graph 2: Population, Total VS. Life Expectancy (years)

                       As stated in Graph 1, population had majorly increased after the 1880s because of the foreign immigration from mostly Europe

 and other continents. The population increase is caused generally by immigration. On the other hand, life expectancy slowly increased partly 

because of the enhanced technology. Many new inventions were generated, therefore creating more job opportunities for people to facilitate

 those machines. With increasing employment, poverty will lessen, whereas life expectancy will boost up. However, inventions are not only

 limited in machines and technology. It may also involve new medicines, vaccines, and cures for diseases, creating better hygiene for the

 society and stop the infectious and fatal diseases from spreading. From the population bubble, we can furthermore clearly see that it becomes

 larger and larger as life expectancy boosts up, which means that as people live longer with more lengthy life spans, the chances of borin

babies increases as well.

Graph 3:CO2 emissions (tonnes per person) VS Income per person (GDP/capita, inflation-adjusted $)

                            Starting from the 19th Century, railroads started coming into this era as the transcontinental railroad was built across the

 country. With more railroads built, the pollution increases, emitting more carbon dioxide than ever. Moreover, the population increases in

 previous graphs significantly showed the immigration of Europeans, which meant that they had brought their technologies from the Industrial

 Revolution to America, and further expanding their imperialism by sharing the technology they had came up with. As advancing technology was

 taking place in America, factories increased. Evidently, factories can create much more industrial job opportunities for people; however, the

 carbon dioxide it produces and emits into the air can be an extreme disadvantage. You can unmistakably notice that the graph had gradual 

increases of CO2 emissions as the decades passed by.


A) Which main topic does the artifact relate to? In what ways?

                     I believe that this artifact relates to Urbanization: Construction of Modern City, because the indicators population, life expectancy, incomes, and CO2 emissions are all topics related to urbanization. Take population for example, the population increased gradually partially because of people becoming more urbanized, concentrating on moving into urban areas more than rural areas. Life expectancy then increased due to better construction of the modern city, creating for convenience and better work conditions for people to work in so they can survive longer. With urbanization, income will also increase because there will be more job opportunities for those who are unemployed. But because of urbanization, more factories will also be built, thus creating more pollution and CO2 emissions than ever. 

B) Which other main topics does it also relate to?

                          This artifact can also relate to Human Movement and Migration, because the other part of population increase comes from migration. People in Europe has been slowly moving into the West and bringing their own products from the Industrial Revolution that can help the urbanization of America. This artifact can also relate to Economy, because as economy started to improve and become more enhanced, life expectancy will grow out from its original shell and people will begin having a better life than the ones they had before.

2) Why did you choose this artifact, and how much time did you spend creating and/ or processing it?

                          I chose these indicators because they are the one of the few that spanned the timeline into the 19th century. The other indicators graphed their timeline in centuries later than the 19th century, thus not relating to the 19th Century Humanities Class. In my opinion, Gapminder is a very good visual presentation for audiences, because can be one of the best ways to present one's thought and ideas. It can give people a short and simple of the data or information they have in hand. For this artifact, I spend about one hour to create and process it, which includes downloading the computer screen recording program that I have just found out. As you can see from the second gapminder I've recorded, I haven't realize that you don't have to record the first part of that, and it was partially because I was just starting to figure out how this program works, so I apologize for the inconvenience.

3) What insights and understanding have you gained from the creation and/or processing of this artifact?

                         Through this artifact, I can get a better visual of the difference between the population from the start of the 19th century to the end of the century. The same concept goes to CO2 emission, income, and life expectancy. It helps me connect from one detail to other, and how urbanization and human migration can be connected together by using gapminder. 

4) Does this artifact reflect your best work and/or ideas? Why, or why not?

                   This artifact can only reflect half of my work since it restricts me from creating my own piece of work. Gapminder can be very easy to navigate, but because of this program, you cannot create your own visualization of the whole topics, and only to have gapminder do all the visualization. I think this is why the artifact does not reflect my best work.

5) Rate this artifact on a scale of -5 to 5 for the following 4 criterion:

   A) impact on the quality of your portfolio                           3

   B) Impact on your level of happiness/enjoyment                 4

   C) impact on your learning                                                 0

   D) Level of creativity and originality                                   3

6) Any additional comments.